Chaetodontidae (Butterflyfishes)

FJ
Double Saddled Butterfly Fish

Chaetodontidae, commonly known as butterflyfishes, are a diverse family of tropical marine fish found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. They are known for their vibrant colors, distinctive patterns, and laterally compressed bodies, which resemble butterflies in flight, hence the name.

Table of Contents

Details: ButterflyFish

Appearance: Butterflyfishes typically have a deep, laterally compressed body with a small mouth and a protruding snout. They have rounded fins, and their bodies are often adorned with vibrant colors and intricate patterns.

Habitat: Butterflyfishes are primarily found in coral reefs, although some species can also be found in rocky or sandy areas near reefs. They prefer warm, tropical waters with plenty of coral growth.

Diet: Most butterflyfishes are omnivorous, feeding on a diet consisting of coral polyps, algae, small invertebrates, and zooplankton. Some species may specialize in certain types of food, such as coral polyps or zooplankton.

Reproduction: Butterflyfishes are typically monogamous and form pairs during the breeding season. They often engage in elaborate courtship rituals before spawning. The female releases her eggs into the water, which are then fertilized by the male. The eggs hatch into larvae, which drift in the ocean currents before settling into coral reefs.

Behavior: Butterflyfishes are generally diurnal, meaning they are active during the day and rest at night. They are social animals and can often be found in pairs or small groups, although some species may be solitary.

Defense Mechanisms: Many butterflyfishes have evolved various defense mechanisms to protect themselves from predators. These can include camouflage, mimicry, and rapid color changes.

Butterflyfish Fact Card

COMMON NAME: Butterflyfish

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Chaetodontidae

TYPE: Fish

DIET: Omnivore

GROUP NAME: School

SIZE: 7-8 inches

Butterflyfish Infographic


Butterflyfish Identification.
Butterflyfish Identification | Image: Underwaterasia

Table: Butterfly Fish in Fiji

Threadfin butterflyfishEastern triangular butterflyfish
Threadfin butterflyfish1Eastern triangular butterflyfish2
Bluelashed butterflyfish.Speckled butterflyfish.
Bluelashed butterflyfish3Speckled butterflyfish4
Saddle butterflyfishBlackwedged butterflyfish
Saddle butterflyfish5Blackwedged butterflyfish6
Black butterflyfishSunburst butterflyfish
Black butterflyfish7Sunburst butterflyfish8
Lined butterflyfishRaccoon butterflyfish
Lined butterflyfish9Raccoon butterflyfish10
Oval butterflyfishBlackback butterflyfish.
Oval butterflyfish11Blackback butterflyfish12
Atoll butterflyfishScrawled butterflyfish.
Atoll butterflyfish13Scrawled butterflyfish14
Eightband butterflyfishOrnate butterflyfish
Eightband butterflyfish15Ornate butterflyfish16
Spot-nape butterflyfishSunset Butterflyfish
Spot-nape butterflyfish17Sunset Butterflyfish18
Blueblotch butterflyfishFourspot butterflyfish.
Blueblotch butterflyfish19Fourspot butterflyfish20
Latticed butterflyfishRainford's Butterflyfish
Latticed butterflyfish21Rainford’s Butterflyfish22
Mailed butterflyfishDotted butterflyfish
Mailed butterflyfish23Dotted butterflyfish24
Mirror butterflyfishTriangle butterflyfish
Mirror butterflyfish25Triangle butterflyfish26
Chevron butterflyfishMelon butterflyfish
Chevron butterflyfish27Melon butterflyfish28
Pacific double-saddle butterflyfish.Teardrop butterflyfish
Pacific double-saddle butterflyfish29Teardrop butterflyfish30
Vagabond butterflyfishCopperband butterflyfish
Vagabond butterflyfish31Copperband butterflyfish32
Forcipiger flavissimusLongnose butterflyfish
Yellow longnose butterflyfish33Longnose butterflyfish34
Pyramid butterflyfishPennant coralfish
Pyramid butterflyfish35Pennant coralfish36
Threeband pennantfishSchooling bannerfish (Heniochus diphreutes)
Threeband pennantfish37Schooling bannerfish38
Masked bannerfishSingular bannerfish
Masked bannerfish39Singular bannerfish40
Horned bannerfishParachaetodon ocellatus
Horned bannerfish41

Sixspine Butterflyfish

Table: Butterfly Fish in Fiji

Footnotes:

  1. Threadfin butterflyfish (Chaetodon auriga) – The Chaetodon auriga, also known as the Threadfin butterflyfish, can reach lengths of up to 23 centimeters (9 inches). Its body boasts a pristine white hue adorned with striking “chevron” patterns along its sides. A distinct black spot graces the rear edge of its dorsal fin, accompanied by a trailing filament. Notably, a bold black vertical band traverses through its eye. This captivating fish showcases a belly patch adorned with descending oblique dark lines, while its fins dazzle in bright yellow hues. ↩︎
  2. Eastern triangular butterflyfish (Chaetodon baronessa) – The Eastern Triangle Butterflyfish, with a maximum length of 16 cm, showcases a distinctive pattern featuring alternating cream and grey-brown to purple chevron-shaped bars along its body. Notably, three dark bars adorn its head, one of which runs across the eye. This species predominantly inhabits seaward and lagoon coral reefs, where it is often observed swimming in pairs, displaying territorial behavior. Its diet exclusively consists of feeding on the polyps of tubular Acropora corals. ↩︎
  3. Bluelashed butterflyfish (Chaetodon bennetti) – The Bluelashed Butterflyfish boasts a vibrant yellow body adorned with striking features. Below its dorsal fin, there’s a distinctive black patch encircled by a brilliant blue ring, while two elegantly curved blue lines accentuate its belly. A vertical black eyestripe is flanked by two parallel blue lines, adding to its captivating appearance. With a dorsal fin containing 13-14 spines and 15-17 soft rays, and an anal fin featuring 3 spines and 14-16 soft rays, this species can reach a maximum total length of 20 centimeters.
    Inhabiting both seaward and lagoon reefs with flourishing coral growth, the Bluelashed Butterflyfish thrives in these environments. Juveniles often seek refuge in shallow Acropora thickets, while adults prefer to roam in pairs. Their diet predominantly consists of coral polyps, reflecting their reliance on these vital reef ecosystems. ↩︎
  4. Speckled butterflyfish (Chaetodon citrinellus) The Speckled Butterflyfish displays a pale yellow hue adorned with numerous small dark spots, creating a captivating pattern. Notably, a black bar extends both above and below its eye, complemented by a black margin on the anal fin. The largest specimen on record measured 13 centimeters (5.1 inches) in length.
    Found commonly in various habitats including shallow exposed reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs, C. citrinellus thrives in relatively open areas adorned with scattered corals. It occasionally ventures to greater depths, reaching as far as 36 meters (118 feet). Its diet comprises small worms, benthic invertebrates, coral polyps, and filamentous algae. ↩︎
  5. Saddle butterflyfish (Chaetodon ephippium) – is an impressive member of its genus, reaching lengths of up to 30 cm (nearly 12 inches). Sporting a yellowish-grey coloration, it features a distinctive large black spot bordered below by a broad white band on the back, with wavy blue lines adorning its lower sides. Bright yellow accents highlight the throat and outline of the hind parts. Notably, adults possess a filament extending posteriorly from the upper part of the soft portion of the dorsal fin. Inhabiting coral reefs at depths ranging from 0 to 30 meters, the Saddle Butterflyfish sustains itself by consuming a varied diet. This includes filamentous algae, small invertebrates, coral polyps, and fish eggs, showcasing its adaptability and role within the reef ecosystem. ↩︎
  6. Blackwedged butterflyfish (Chaetodon falcula) – exhibits a striking appearance with its white body adorned by thin vertical dark grey lines. Notable features include two prominent black saddle-like blotches on the dorsal part of the body, a vertical black eye band, and a black caudal peduncle. Its dorsal, anal, and caudal fins boast a vibrant yellow hue, extending onto the body adjacent to the dorsal and anal fins. The dorsal fin comprises 12–13 spines and 23–25 soft rays, while the anal fin contains 3 spines and 20–21 soft rays, contributing to its graceful presence. This species can reach a total length of 20 centimeters (7.9 inches). ↩︎
  7. Black butterflyfish (Chaetodon flavirostris) – showcases a darkish bluish-grey body accentuated by a contrasting white mouth and a slender yellow band on its snout. Notably, a darker bump adorns its forehead. Its dorsal, anal, and caudal fins display a vibrant yellow color, with an eye-catching orange band traversing across the dorsal and anal fins and along the caudal peduncle. These fins are adorned with black margins, extending to the tail. Juveniles sport paler grey bodies with yellow median fins. The dorsal fin comprises 12-13 spines and 24-27 soft rays, while the anal fin boasts 3 spines and 20-21 soft rays. This species can grow up to a maximum total length of 20 centimeters (7.9 inches).
    In its habitat, the Black Butterflyfish thrives at depths ranging from 2 to 20 meters (6.6 to 65.6 feet) amidst rocky areas rich in coral and algae, both in lagoons and on seaward reefs, and occasionally even in estuaries. As an omnivorous species, it sustains itself by consuming algae, coral, and small benthic invertebrates. Breeding typically occurs in pairs, and these fish often maintain their pair bond throughout their lives. While some populations form aggregations, juveniles predominantly inhabit protected inner reefs until they mature. ↩︎
  8. Sunburst butterflyfish (Chaetodon kleinii) – The fish boasts a body hue ranging from yellowish brown, often adorned with 1-2 broad lighter vertical bars. One of these bars typically extends from near the origin of the dorsal spine to the belly, with the possibility of another running from the middle of the back to the center of the body. A distinguishing feature is the presence of a black bar vertically crossing the eye, preceding a whitish section with a black snout. Interestingly, the coloration can vary across its range: western specimens commonly exhibit one beige bar, while their eastern counterparts may display two white bars. Additional features may include numerous dotted horizontal stripes on the sides or another dark band positioned between the two light bars in eastern specimens. ↩︎
  9. Lined butterflyfish (Chaetodon lineolatus) – reaching lengths of up to 30 centimeters (12 inches). Their coloration is predominantly white, featuring slender black vertical bars that converge into a thick black band at the base of the tail and dorsal fin. Adding a vibrant contrast, the tail, dorsal, and anal fins boast a striking yellow hue. ↩︎
  10. Raccoon butterflyfish (Chaetodon lunula) – with a maximum length of 20 cm (almost 8 in), is among the larger butterflyfish species. Their body shape is oval, accentuated by a striking pattern of ascending oblique reddish stripes along the flanks. Over their face and eyes, they display distinctive black and white bands, reminiscent of a “raccoon” mask, hence the common name associated with this feature. Notably, a black spot adorns the caudal peduncle, while oblique yellow stripes embellish the area behind the head. This species typically possesses 10-14 dorsal spines and 3 anal spines. ↩︎
  11. Oval butterflyfish (Chaetodon lunulatus) – exhibits a distinct back patch below the dorsal fin and primarily features a yellow anal fin. Chaetodon lunulatus, reaching lengths of up to 14 cm, showcases approximately 13-14 dorsal spines, 20-22 dorsal soft rays, three anal spines, and 18-21 anal soft rays. ↩︎
  12. Blackback butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) – This particular fish can reach lengths of up to 18 centimeters (approximately 7 inches) and has a lifespan of around 20 years. It has the ability to change color, especially when it’s dark or feels threatened. During these times, its upper body turns black with two distinctive white patches. Its overall appearance is oval-shaped with a silvery body, accented by yellow fins and snout, along with diagonal stripes that slope upwards. Additionally, it features black markings around its eyes, on the caudal peduncle, and occasionally on its back. ↩︎
  13. Atoll butterflyfish (Chaetodon mertensii) – This fish can reach a maximum length of 12.5 centimeters (5 inches). Its body is predominantly white, adorned with 5-7 chevron-shaped dark grey bands along its sides. The back portion of its trunk, along with the adjoining dorsal and anal fins, as well as the rear part of the tail fin, display vibrant shades of orange or yellow. It features a distinct vertical black bar that extends across the eye and over the nape uninterrupted. This characteristic helps differentiate it from similar species, which typically have separate markings for the nape and eye. ↩︎
  14. Scrawled butterflyfish (Chaetodon meyeri) – scrawled butterflyfish exhibits a body coloration ranging from whitish to bluish-white, adorned with distinctive curved and diagonal black markings along its sides. These markings have a noticeable curvature towards the rear on the curved bars. Additionally, it features a prominent black bar edged with yellow that extends across its eye, with a similar pattern present around the snout and mouth area. Regarding its fin composition, it possesses 12-13 spines and 23-25 soft rays in the dorsal fin, along with 3 spines and 18-20 soft rays in the anal fin. This species can grow up to a maximum total length of 20 centimeters (7.9 inches). ↩︎
  15. Eightband butterflyfish (Chaetodon octofasciatus) – This particular fish boasts a flat, circular disk-shaped body with a slightly pointed snout. Its body coloration transitions from white to yellowish towards the belly, adorned with seven distinct black stripes spanning over the head and flanks. Notably, one of these stripes runs centrally along the snout, while another serves as a clear black border to the dorsal and anal fins. The third stripe extends onto the pelvic fin. All fins exhibit a vibrant yellow hue. On the caudal peduncle, there is a distinctive black spot encircled by white. Additionally, some specimens may feature horizontal bars in black or brown connecting the rear pairs of vertical bars. The background coloration of the fish varies depending on its habitat, with paler, creamier tones observed in clear waters over coral reefs, while yellower hues are associated with less clear water, often tinted green by algae near river mouths. In terms of fin structure, it possesses 10-12 spines and 17-19 soft rays in the dorsal fin, while the anal fin comprises 3-4 spines and 14-17 soft rays. This butterflyfish species, relatively small in size, reaches a maximum total length of 12 centimeters (4.7 inches). ↩︎
  16. Ornate butterflyfish (Chaetodon ornatissimus) – is distinguished primarily by its coloration, serving as a defense mechanism against predators. These butterflyfish feature white bodies adorned with oblique bands ranging from orange to orange-brown. Additionally, they exhibit two distinct yellow-edged black bars on their head: one extending across the eyes and the other positioned on the snout. Furthermore, their tails are marked with two black bars. The size range of the ornate butterflyfish spans from 13 to 18 centimeters in total length. ↩︎
  17. Spot-nape butterflyfish (Chaetodon oxycephalus) – The spot-nape butterflyfish can reach lengths of up to 25 centimeters (9.8 inches). Its body displays a predominantly white coloration with slender vertical lines along the sides and a prominent black region on the upper back. Although resembling the Lined Butterflyfish (C. lineolatus) closely, it can be differentiated by the interruption in its vertical black eyestripe above the eye. Additionally, distinctive black and orange lines and spots adorn the yellow dorsal and caudal fins. ↩︎
  18. Sunset Butterflyfish (Chaetodon pelewensis) – exhibits a dusky yellow hue across its body, featuring diagonal stripes traversing its form. Notably, a distinct black-margined gold vertical bar passes through the eye, enhancing its appearance. A conspicuous black spot adorns its head, while the stripes tend to disperse into spots towards the head and lower flanks. The fins’ edges boast a vibrant yellow hue, complemented by a bright orange base on the caudal fin. In terms of fin structure, it possesses 13-14 spines and 22-25 soft rays in the dorsal fin, and 3 spines with 17-18 soft rays in the anal fin. This species reaches a maximum total length of 12.5 centimeters. ↩︎
  19. Blueblotch butterflyfish (Chaetodon plebeius) – Chaetodon plebeius showcases a vivid yellow body adorned with a prominent horizontal, elongated blue patch on the flanks above the midline. Notably, a black spot with bluish-white margins decorates the caudal peduncle, while a vertical black band, also with bluish-white margins, extends through the eye. The dorsal, anal, pelvic, and caudal fins exhibit a brilliant yellow coloration. It’s noteworthy that juveniles lack the blue patch on the flanks. In terms of fin structure, the dorsal fin typically contains 13-15 spines and 16-18 soft rays, while the anal fin possesses 4-5 spines and 14-16 soft rays. This species can grow up to a maximum total length of 15 centimeters. ↩︎
  20. Fourspot butterflyfish (Chaetodon quadrimaculatus) – The distinguishing feature of the Fourspot butterflyfish lies in its four rounded, eye-shaped spots, positioned in pairs on each lateral surface. These spots serve a speculated purpose, potentially aiding in predator evasion by either intimidating predators or redirecting their attacks to less vulnerable areas of the body. ↩︎
  21. Latticed butterflyfish (Chaetodon rafflesi) – The latticed butterflyfish boasts a primarily yellow coloration, with dark edges outlining its scales, resulting in a striking dark lattice pattern on its flanks. Notably, a vertical black bar traverses through the eye, accompanied by a blue patch on the forehead. The soft-rayed section of the dorsal fin features a dark submarginal band, while a wide black bar adorns the center of the caudal fin. Occasionally, a black spot can be observed underneath the spiny section of the dorsal fin, and juveniles typically exhibit a dark spot on the soft-rayed part of the dorsal fin. ↩︎
  22. Rainford’s Butterflyfish (Chaetodon rainfordi) – stands out due to its distinct coloration when compared to other related species. It typically features a yellow base color with an orange bar, bordered by dark edges, extending through the eye. Additionally, there’s another thinner orange bar running through the base of the pectoral fin. Two blue-grey bands, outlined with yellow-orange, adorn the body. Typically, a black spot can be observed on the caudal peduncle. Furthermore, gold bands are often present on each side of the wider diffuse dark bars. The dorsal, anal, and pectoral fins of this species are predominantly yellow in color. ↩︎
  23. Mailed butterflyfish (Chaetodon reticulatus) – presents a subdued color palette, characterized by a predominantly blackish body with light grey centers on the scales and a pale back. A prominent feature is a wide vertical band with yellow edges that extends through the eye, accompanied by a broad, white vertical band behind it. Its dorsal fin displays a white hue, while the anal fin remains uncolored. The caudal peduncle appears black, while the caudal fin exhibits a whitish-blue tone with a yellow band along the margin, bordered by a black submargin. Juvenile specimens typically possess transparent tails. In terms of fin structure, the dorsal fin typically comprises 12-13 spines and 23-29 soft rays, while the anal fin features 3 spines and 20-22 soft rays. This species can grow up to a maximum total length of 18 centimeters. ↩︎
  24. Dotted butterflyfish (Chaetodon semeion) – exhibits a vibrant golden-yellow hue, featuring a vertical, teardrop-shaped bar passing through the eye. Its forehead is adorned with a blue hue, while slightly oblique rows of black spots grace its flanks. The dorsal, anal, pectoral, and pelvic fins share the same yellow coloration, with black bases on the dorsal and anal fins, and a filament emerging from the soft-rayed part of the dorsal fin. Notably, females have a visibly thickened abdominal region. This species can reach a maximum total length of 26 centimeters. ↩︎
  25. Mirror butterflyfish (Chaetodon speculum) – reaches a maximum length of 18 centimeters (7 inches). It possesses 14 spines and 17-18 soft rays in the dorsal fin, and 3 spines with 15-16 soft rays in the anal fin. The body displays a bright to orange-yellow coloration, accentuated by a large black blotch positioned below the dorsal fin. Additionally, a vertical black bar extends through the eye, further contributing to its distinctive appearance. ↩︎
  26. Triangle butterflyfish (Chaetodon triangulum) – showcases a flat, triangular-shaped body, particularly notable when its fins are fully spread, coupled with an elongated snout. The predominant color of its body is whitish, adorned with numerous broad, vertical grey chevron-shaped bands along the sides. Its mouth exhibits an orange hue, while a brownish-orange vertical band extends through the eye, transitioning into a brighter orange shade closer to the top of the head and widening as it extends rearward on the base of the dorsal fin in adult specimens. The caudal peduncle and caudal fin are black, with yellow margins adorning the latter. This species can reach a maximum total length of 16 centimeters. ↩︎
  27. Chevron butterflyfish (Chaetodon trifascialis) – The chevron butterflyfish displays a relatively elongated pale body adorned with dark vertical chevron markings. Its tail is black with a yellow posterior margin. A distinguishing feature is a black band with pale edges that extends through the eye. Juveniles of this species are characterized by a black vertical band that runs from the rear of the dorsal fin, over the rear of the body to the rear of the anal fins. They also feature a yellow tail base and pectoral fins. ↩︎
  28. Melon butterflyfish (Chaetodon trifasciatus) – The melon butterflyfish is characterized by a less noticeable back patch below the dorsal fin and a predominantly dark anal fin. ↩︎
  29. Pacific double-saddle butterflyfish (Chaetodon ulietensis) – grow up to a size of 15 cm (5.9 in). They exhibit a white body adorned with vertical thin black lines running down their length. Additionally, there are two dark saddles on the fore and hind back, which gently blend into the background coloration towards the tail. Following the hind quarter saddle, the body and tail transition into a bright yellow hue, featuring a black spot on the caudal peduncle. A streak of yellow extends from the crown of the head to the tail along the dorsal fin. Similar to many of its relatives, this species displays a black eye band resembling a mask. Like most butterflyfish, the Pacific double-saddle butterflyfish is susceptible to blanching at night and when startled. ↩︎
  30. Teardrop butterflyfish (Chaetodon unimaculatus) – is characterized by a whitish body with yellow dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins, with this yellow hue extending onto the back. The upper flank is adorned with a prominent teardrop-shaped black blotch, while a wide black vertical bar runs through the eye. Delicate yellowish-orange chevrons embellish the flanks in front of the black teardrop, and another black vertical band extends from the rear of the dorsal fin, across the caudal peduncle to the rear of the anal fin. ↩︎
  31. Vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus) – is characterized by a pale body adorned with two sets of thin, dark diagonal lines forming a chevron pattern. It also features a broad black vertical band passing through the eye, as well as additional bands on the caudal peduncle and center of the caudal fin. Delicate horizontal orange lines grace the forehead. Notably, juvenile specimens display a black dot on the soft-rayed portion of their dorsal fin near the posterior end. ↩︎
  32. Copperband butterflyfish (Chelmon rostratus) -The distinguishing features of these fish include their yellow banding and elongated snout. Even as juveniles, they closely resemble adult fish. Typically reaching lengths of up to 20 cm, butterflyfish exhibit a compressed, deep-bodied shape that gives them a taller appearance than their actual length. Their white background is accentuated by vertical yellow stripes. Their slender, elongated snout and less prominent dark eye contribute to their distinct appearance, with the dark eye-spot on the dorsal fin being more conspicuous. Additionally, a dark band at the base of the tail runs perpendicular to the tail fin. ↩︎
  33. Yellow longnose butterflyfish (Forcipiger flavissimus) – has a bright yellow body and horizontally divided face of black and white ↩︎
  34. Longnose butterflyfish (Forcipiger longirostris) – features a compressed body in a vibrant yellow hue, distinguished by a black triangular region on its head. True to its name, it boasts a lengthy, silvery snout. Typically, it possesses 10 or 11 dorsal spines, along with a notable black spot on the anal fin. Rows of small black spots adorn the breast area. ↩︎
  35. Pyramid butterflyfish (Hemitaurichthys polylepis) – is a petite species, typically reaching a maximum length of 18 cm. Its body is laterally compressed with a rounded profile, featuring a slightly protruding snout and a small extendable mouth. Its distinctive appearance makes identification effortless. A dark brown-yellow area, varying in intensity, completely covers the head and extends to a line from the first rays of the dorsal fin to the beginning of its pelvic fins. The remainder of the body, including the peduncle and caudal fin, is white. Yellow-orange patches at the top of the sides form a distinct pyramidal pattern, from which the fish derives its name. The anal fin also showcases a yellow-orange hue. ↩︎
  36. Pennant coralfish (Heniochus acuminatus) – exhibits a laterally compressed body, with the first rays of its dorsal fin extending into a long white filament. Its body coloration features a white background adorned with two prominent black diagonal bands. Past the second black stripe, both the dorsal and caudal fins display a vibrant yellow hue. The pectoral fins also share this yellow coloration. The head is predominantly white, with black eyes connected by a black band. The snout, speckled with black spots, is slightly elongated, housing a small terminal mouth that can be extended. ↩︎
  37. Threeband pennantfish (Heniochus chrysostomus) – With a primary white coloration, this fish showcases three broad oblique brown bands. The first dark brown band extends from the forehead to the ventral fins, the second stretches from the dorsal fin to the anal fin, and the third lies adjacent to the dorsal fin. Notably, the first rays of the dorsal fin appear elongated, resembling a black and white feather. The head features a short snout and a small protractile mouth. A distinctive yellow pattern adorns the mouth, top of the snout, and the area between its eyes. The posterior section of the dorsal fin, along with the caudal and pectoral fins, displays an orange-yellow hue. Juveniles of this species exhibit an ocellus, characterized by a black spot bordered with orange-yellow, located on the underside of the anal fin. ↩︎
  38. Schooling bannerfish (Heniochus diphreutes) – boasts a laterally compressed body, with the first rays of its dorsal fin extending into a lengthy white filament. Its body is primarily white, adorned with two prominent black diagonal bands. Past the second black stripe, the dorsal, caudal, and pectoral fins take on a vibrant yellow hue. The head is white, with black eyes connected by a black to gray band. A short snout, speckled with black to gray spots, houses a small terminal mouth that can be extended. ↩︎
  39. Masked bannerfish (Heniochus monoceros) – first rays of its dorsal fin extending into a white filament, outlined with yellow. Its body features a white background with two prominent black vertical bands. The first band masks its face, starting from the mouth and extending to the base of the first rays of the dorsal fin, encompassing the snout and eyes. White lips and whitish bands between the eyes further accentuate its facial features. Notably, a small growth on the forehead emits a bright whitish to yellowish glow. The second black band is positioned centrally on the fish’s side. A yellow area extends from the posterior edge of the second black band to the middle of the anal fin, encompassing the dorsal and caudal fins. Within this yellow area, close to the caudal peduncle, a variable-sized brown-yellow blotch emerges. ↩︎
  40. Singular bannerfish (Heniochus singularis) – The color pattern on the body begins with a white band encircling the mouth, followed by several black bands. These bands consist of an eye stripe extending from above the eye to the chin. Subsequent to the eye stripe, there is a band spanning the middle of the body to the front of the dorsal fin. The final black band runs diagonally from the start of the soft-rayed part of the dorsal fin to the rear of the anal fin. In adults, the soft-rayed portion of the dorsal fin and the caudal fin display a vibrant canary yellow color. Furthermore, the body between the black bands showcases a fine reticulated pattern. ↩︎
  41. Horned bannerfish (Heniochus varius) – The horned bannerfish is distinguished from its relatives by the presence of a pair of prominent horns above the eyes and a noticeable bump on the forehead in adult specimens. The body’s primary coloration ranges from brown to blackish, interrupted by a thin white band behind the head and a second white band extending from the spiny part of the dorsal fin to the caudal peduncle. These two white stripes form a triangular pattern on the body’s base coloration. ↩︎

References:

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